Effectively Applying the Rumsfeld Matrix

Explore a strategic tool for managing knowns and unknowns, enhancing decision making and strategic adaptability

Blog Post
April 2, 2024


The term 'Rumsfeld Matrix' was coined after Donald Rumsfeld, the former United States Secretary of Defense. He is known for his unique way of framing the complexity of knowledge and uncertainty during a press conference in 2002, in the context of the Iraq War. His words were later encapsulated into what we now refer to as the 'Rumsfeld Matrix'.

Rumsfeld's original statement was:

"There are known knowns; there are things we know we know. We also know there are known unknowns; that is to say we know there are some things we do not know. But there are also unknown unknowns—the ones we don’t know we don’t know."

This statement, while initially met with some confusion, was later recognized as a profound insight into the nature of knowledge and uncertainty.

Over time, the Rumsfeld Matrix has been adopted and adapted by various fields beyond politics and military strategy. In the realm of business management and strategic planning, it has proven to be a valuable tool for identifying and addressing uncertainties and risks. It helps strategists and decision-makers to map out what they know, what they don't know, and what they don't know they don't know, thereby enabling them to make more informed and effective decisions.

Key Concepts

The Rumsfeld Matrix is a quadrant that divides knowledge and uncertainty into four categories: Known Knowns (things we know we know), Known Unknowns (things we know we don't know), Unknown Knowns (things we don't know we know), and Unknown Unknowns (things we don't know we don't know). Each quadrant represents a different level of awareness and understanding, and the matrix as a whole provides a framework for identifying gaps in knowledge and potential risks.

Known Knowns

This quadrant represents the awareness of certain information that we comprehend. Picture this as the business landscape's tangible realities - the market inclinations we discern, the customer's predispositions we observe, or the unmistakable data on the company's financial standing.

Known Unknowns

In this quadrant, we harbor uncertainties we readily recognize but do not hold adequate information about. Engaging with these in the realm of business could mean anticipating market fluctuation, envisaging the opponent's maneuvers, or predicting shifts in regulations. Acknowledging these uncertainties enables corporations to shape precautionary measures and devise strategic solutions to curb potential risks.

Unknown Knowns

This quadrant is composed of the tacit understanding or unrecognized knowledge. Often this encompasses embedded business protocols or cultural norms that impact decision-making, yet remain unacknowledged. Digging out these 'unknown knowns' can expose underlying presumptions or biases that possibly obstruct effective strategy formulation.

Unknown Unknowns

The final quadrant is the 'Unknown Unknowns.' They embody unforeseen phenomena or 'black swans' too elusive to predict or gear up for. It may seem unfeasible to prepare for specific unknown unknowns, yet businesses can instill resilience and versatility in their strategic planning to respond effectively to sudden, unanticipated hurdles.

Applying of the Rumsfeld Matrix

Effective deployment of the Rumsfeld Matrix provides enterprises with an enriched insight into their strategic ecology. By identifying and strategically treating each quadrant, decisions can be made that are built on stronger foundations, risks can be handled with increased efficiency, and hidden opportunities can be discovered and exploited.

The Rumsfeld Matrix engenders an organizational culture steeped in inquisitiveness and relentless knowledge acquisition. Recognizing the boundaries of current knowledge and the probability of unexpected occurrences creates a strategic mindset that is more responsive and adaptable.

Project Management

In the field of project management, the Rumsfeld Matrix is often used to identify and manage potential obstacles. A project manager may know certain risks, such as potential delays in delivery (known knowns), and may be aware of uncertainties, such as the possibility of a key team member leaving (known unknowns). However, the matrix also helps them prepare for unforeseen challenges (unknown unknowns), such as sudden changes in market demand or a global pandemic.


Another example of the Rumsfeld Matrix in business is in the area of strategic planning. Companies often use this tool to identify potential opportunities and threats in their environment. For example, a company might know that a competitor is planning to launch a new product (known knowns), but they might not know how the market will react to this new product (known unknowns). They might also be unaware of potential technological advancements that could disrupt their industry (unknown unknowns). By using the Rumsfeld Matrix, companies can develop more robust and flexible strategic plans.

Product Development

In the area of product development, the Rumsfeld Matrix has been used to drive innovation. A company may know the features of their existing products (known knowns) and may be aware of gaps in their offerings (known unknowns), such as a lack of mobile compatibility. The matrix can help them uncover unmet customer needs or emerging trends (unknown unknowns) that could lead to the development of a groundbreaking new product.


The Rumsfeld Matrix is used to manage general threats. A company may know their current security measures (known knowns) and may be aware of potential vulnerabilities (known unknowns), such as outdated software. The matrix can help them anticipate unforeseen threats (unknown unknowns), such as new forms of cyberattacks or security breaches.

Getting Started

But how do we begin using this matrix? The first step involves initiating a team brainstorming session—seeking inputs on our project's known knowns, known unknowns, unknown knowns, and unknown unknowns.

Awareness vs Understanding
Source: Betty Zhang, Versett

How do we prepare a team for this challenge? First, it's essential to provide an introduction to the Rumsfeld Matrix concept itself – the four quadrants of the matrix, their definitions and differences, and their potential impacts on the project. This can be achieved through informative presentations, workshops, or briefing sessions, all underpinned by open and engaging discussion.

Turning to tools, the Rumsfeld Matrix can be physically represented via flipcharts or whiteboards during face-to-face sessions. Alternatively, given today's context of remote work and virtual collaboration, we can use various digital platforms. Online mind-mapping and collaborative software such as Miro, Lucidchart, or Figjam can present visually striking and interactive representations of the Rumsfeld Matrix. These digital tools provide features for real-time collaboration, annotation, and multimedia support, ensuring that all ideas are captured, discussed, and consolidated even in a virtual environment.

Or we can use the good ol' fashioned whiteboard!

Building out the board

Now that we have the matrix in front of us, what's next? Setting up the matrix is merely step one. It now needs to be populated with relevant data, followed by the process of consolidation and management. This process isn’t a one-off event; it’s a dynamic, iterative process that is revisited weekly or as often as necessary based on the project's complexity and uncertainties.

A more detailed roadmap of setting up and driving the Rumsfeld Matrix will significantly contribute to positively shaping the project's outcomes.

Each week, interacting with the Rumsfeld Board becomes a cyclical process of three steps - Populate with new information, Consolidate what's been found, and Manage the movement of information from one category to another. With this process, understanding your project becomes a seamless experience instead of a forced task.


The first step in using the Rumsfeld Matrix is the 'populate' stage. In this initial phase, you collect and organize the essential information and data for the Matrix.

Imagine this stage as a brainstorming session, an opportunity for every team member to share their insights related to the project. During this process, you may discover Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, Unknown Knowns, and maybe even Unknown Unknowns. Taking time on this stage equips you to tackle complex project challenges effectively.  

In simple terms, this phase ensures complete transparency. It's about acknowledging what you know, admitting what you don't know, and preparing for any future unpredictabilities. While people often say "Knowledge is power", in the context of the Rumsfeld Matrix, it's more appropriate to say "Understanding is power". That's because it's the understanding gained from this stage that empowers the team to manage projects effectively.


After populating the matrix, the ensuing stage is consolidation. This involves a deeper analysis of the collected ideas and information, distilling them into coherent and actionable insights. Leveraging the matrix's four quadrants, one can prioritize tasks and actions based on their urgency and importance. Consolidation is an exercise in clarity, facilitating the transformation of unknown knowns into known knowns and, in turn, surfacing unknown unknowns.

Essentially, this focuses on the team's ability to transform uncertainties into certainties and get ready for unexpected events is what makes consolidation successful. This ongoing process provides the nimbleness needed to tackle new obstacles in the future.


Now we focus on systematically addressing the Known Knowns and Known Unknowns, while making preparations for the Unknown Knowns and Unknown Unknowns. This step forms the backbone of communication and ensures that all team members are on the same page regarding progression.

While the Known Knowns act as backbones moving forward, the Known Unknowns represent potential hazards that can quickly erode. Here, active engagement in risk management activities such as planning for contingencies, mitigation strategies, and creating appropriate buffers, allow managers to manage Known Unknowns efficiently.

Interestingly, the management of Unknown Knowns proves to be a rather odd, yet essential process. These encompass the knowledge that the team holds unconsciously, often manifested as implicit assumptions or under-emphasized project requirements. Capturing these Unknown Knowns requires regular team engagement, encouraging open communication and revisiting goals.

This invariably ensures that 'hidden' project knowledge is brought to the surface and adequately managed.

The last section of the Rumsfeld Matrix, Unknown Unknowns, relates to unexpected events that can't be predicted. These uncertain factors require a flexible and adaptive approach. By building a strategy that's capable of quickly responding to unexpected changes, the team can operate and respond effectively, even when faced with unexpected obstacles or otherwise paralyzing uncertainty.

Actively Managing the Matrix

Remember: using the Rumsfeld Matrix is not a one-off activity; it's an ongoing process of tracking project understanding and adjusting as necessary. Just as one navigates through uncharted territories by continually referencing a map, leveraging the Rumsfeld Matrix is an iterative procedure that continually guides the team.

The Rumsfeld Matrix becomes a living document, organically evolving along with new information changing our assumptions. We don't know everything and can't know everything. Similarly successful management relies on understanding our knowledge's limits and using this to constantly adapt. The Rumsfeld Matrix helps to expand our knowledge, confronts what we don't know, and handles unexpected challenges. It helps to turn unknown unknowns into known unknowns, and ultimately into known knowns. This is the core of learning and growth, on both the organizational and individual level, isn't it?

In short, certain core principles ought to be at the heart of our approach:

  • This evaluation process is not a one-time activity. It is a continuous, dynamic exercise that must evolve with the changing landscapes of a project or strategy.
  • Fostering an open culture that encourages dialogue and the free flow of ideas is vital for unearthing hidden assumptions, biases, and knowledge gaps.
  • Just as important as identifying the unknowns is determining the impact of these unknowns. After all, strategy isn't about achieving perfection; it's about making informed decisions in the face of uncertainty.

In closing, the Rumsfeld Matrix is a powerful tool, a systematic guide and a critical thinking provoker that aids us in transforming our unknowns into knowledge, thus enabling us to make robust, informed decisions. In essence, it is not a mere technique but rather an enlightened approach to knowledge management. Will the application of the Rumsfeld Matrix rid us of all unknowns? No. But it will certainly equip our mindsets to embrace those unknowns, not with fear, but with curiosity and an action plan. And isn't that, truly, the pathway to innovative thinking and a successful business strategy?

Further Reading

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